1. Juli 2014

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Andrew Carnegie’s decision to help library construction developed due to his very own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years from the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed out of the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create. Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but been required to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization belonging to the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father from business. As a consequence, the household sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Andrew Carnegie’s decision to help library construction developed due to his very own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years from the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed out of the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create.official statement Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but been required to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization belonging to the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father from business. As a consequence, the household sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Although these new circumstances required the young Carnegie to visit work, his learning did not end. Right after a year from a textile factory, he became a messenger boy for that local telegraph company. A few of his fellow messengers introduced him to Col. James Anderson of Allegheny, who every Saturday opened his personal library to any young worker who wished to borrow a magazine. Carnegie later said the colonel opened the windows where light of information streamed. In 1853, the moment the colonel’s representatives tried to restrict the library’s use, Carnegie wrote a letter to the editor from the Pittsburgh Dispatch defending the ideal among all working boys to savor the pleasures of this library. More vital, he resolved that, should he be wealthy, he would make similar opportunities on the market to other poor workers.

Covering the next half-century Carnegie accumulated the fortune that is going to enable him to satisfy that pledge. Throughout his years as a messenger, Carnegie had taught himself the art of telegraphy. This skill helped him make contacts aided by the Pennsylvania Railroad, where he attended work at age 18. During his 12-year railroad association he rose quickly, ultimately becoming superintendent on the Pennsylvania’s Pittsburgh division. He simultaneously invested in many different other businesses, including railroad locomotives, oil, and iron and steel. In 1865, Carnegie left the railroad to handle the Keystone Bridge Company, that has been successfully replacing wooden railroad bridges with iron ones. Because of the 1870s he was paying attention to steel manufacturing, ultimately creating the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901 he sold that business for $250 million.

Carnegie then retired and devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy. Just before selling Carnegie Steel he had begun to consider how to handle his immense fortune. In 1889 he wrote a famous essay entitled The Gospel of Wealth, that he stated that wealthy men should live without extravagance, provide moderately for his or her dependents, and distribute most of their riches to profit the welfare and happiness for the common man–with the consideration that may help only those would you help themselves. The Most Beneficial Fields for Philanthropy, his second essay, listed seven fields which the wealthy should donate: universities, libraries, medical centers, public parks, meeting and concert halls, public baths, and churches. He later expanded this list to add gifts that promoted scientific research, the typical spread of information, and the promotion of world peace. Several of these organizations always this present day: the Carnegie Corporation in Nyc, as an example ,, helps support Sesame Street.

Thanks to his background, Carnegie was particularly focused on public libraries. At one point he stated a library was the best possible gift for that community, mainly because it gave people the capability to improve themselves. His confidence was dependant upon the outcomes of similar gifts from earlier philanthropists. In Baltimore, as an illustration, a library distributed by Enoch Pratt was basically used by 37,000 individuals twelve months. Carnegie believed the relatively few public library patrons were of more value to their community as compared to the masses who chose to not ever take advantage of the library.

Carnegie divided his donations to libraries into your retail and wholesale periods. Through retail period, 1886 to 1896, he gave $1,860,869 for 14 endowed buildings in six communities in the us. These buildings were actually community centers, containing recreational facilities just like private pools and libraries. While in the years after 1896, named the wholesale period, Carnegie not necessarily supported urban multipurpose buildings. Instead he gave $39,172,981 to smaller communities which had limited admittance to cultural institutions. His gifts provided 1,406 towns with buildings devoted exclusively to libraries. Over half his grants were cheaper than $10,000. Although lots of the towns receiving gifts were with the Midwest, as a whole 46 states took advantage of Carnegie’s plan.

Andrew Carnegie stopped making gifts for library construction after having a report created to him by Dr. Alvin Johnson, an economics professor. In 1916 Dr. Johnson visited 100 with the existing Carnegie libraries and studied their social significance, physical aspects, effectiveness, and financial condition. His final report concluded that to be really effective, the libraries needed trained personnel. Buildings have been provided, but now it was time to staff them with experts who would stimulate active, efficient libraries in their own communities. Libraries already promised continued being built until 1923, but after 1919 all financial support was considered library education.

When Andrew Carnegie died in 1919 at age 84, he had given nearly one-fourth of his life to causes wherein he believed. His gifts to various charities totalled nearly $350 million, almost 90 % of his fortune. Carnegie regarded all education as a method to increase people’s lives, and libraries provided considered one of his main tools that may help Americans generate a brighter future. Questions for Reading 1 1. How did progress and industrialization affect Carnegie, both when he was young, and later on? 2. How much formal education did Carnegie have? What factors contributed to his curiosity about books and reading? 3. What did Carnegie believe wealthy people must do utilizing their money? Why did he imagine that? Do you agree? 4. How did supporting libraries match Carnegie’s past and the beliefs? Reading 1 was compiled from George S. Bobinski, Carnegie Libraries (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969); Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, reprint (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1920 1986); Barry Sears, Within the Trail of Carnegie Libraries, Antiques and Collecting (February 1994); Gerald R. Shields, Recycling Buildings for Libraries, Public Libraries (March/April 1994).

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